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Electrical Stimulation


Specs & Resources


A seamless solution for open-ended and closed-loop stimulation

TDT provides an integrated hardware and software solution for open-ended and closed-loop electrical stimulation. The Subject Interface is a dynamic electrical stimulator for producing simple and complex stimulation paradigms, and it is the only multichannel stimulator that can perform both:

  1. Microstimulation (with high impedance intracortical electrodes)
  2. Macrostimulation (with low impedance ECoG and EMG electrodes)

The Subject Interface is controlled by TDT’s Synapse software, which is used to design, control, and visualize stimulation paradigms alongside electrophysiology data.

Caldwell … Ojemann, et al “Direct stimulation of somatosensory cortex results in slower reaction times compared to peripheral touch in humans”. Scientific Reports Dec, 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-38619-2

Bong … Suminski, et al “Flexible, multichannel cuff electrode for selective electrical stimulation of the mouse trigeminal nerve”. Biosensors and Bioelectronics Oct, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2019.111493

Dirr … Otto, et al “Targeted Vagus Nerve Stimulation does not Disrupt Cardiac Function in the Diabetic Rat”. 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) July, 2019. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2019.8857474

Michelson … Kozai, et al “Calcium activation of cortical neurons by continuous electrical stimulation: Frequency dependence, temporal fidelity, and activation density”. J. Neurosci. Res. 2019. doi: 10.1002/jnr.24370

Formento … Courtine, et al “Electrical spinal cord stimulation must preserve proprioception to enable locomotion in humans with spinal cord injury”. Nature Neuroscience Oct, 2018. doi: 10.1038/s41593-018-0262-6

Meng … Kameneva, et al “Upper stimulation threshold for retinal ganglion cell activation”. Journal of Neural Engineering Aug, 2018. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/aabb7d

Delgado … Otto, et al “Effect of Asymmetric, Charge Balanced Stimuli on Elicited Compound Neural Action Potentials”. 40th Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. July, 2018. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513057

Kotsakidis … Kameneva, et al “In vitro assessment of the differences in retinal ganglion cell responses to intra- and extracellular electrical stimulation”. Journal of Neural Engineering Jun, 2018. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/aac2f7

Guo … Lim, et al “Ultrasound Produces Extensive Brain Activation via a Cochlear Pathway”. Neuron Jun, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.04.036

Spencer … Shivdasani, et al “Creating virtual electrodes with 2D current steering”. Journal of Neural Engineering Mar, 2018. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/aab1b8

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Subject Interface Stimulator

TDT’s Subject Interface is the only multichannel stimulator that performs both microstimulation with high impedance intracortical electrodes and macrostimulation with low impedance ECoG and EMG electrodes.

For microstimulation, the Subject Interface has one of the highest compliance voltages with +/- 15 V, and the ability to combine banks for voltages up to +/- 100 V.  This allows users to deliver currents up to 100 mA into high impedance electrodes.

For macrostimulation, the Subject Interface delivers up to 5 mA of current through ECoG or EMG electrodes, with the option of combining channels to increase the max current to 20 mA.

All of these sophisticated electronics are accessed and controlled through Synapse and the Electrical Stim Driver Gizmo for easy customization.

Customize and automate your stimulation in Synapse

Synapse manages the high-level control of the Subject Interface for all stimulation paradigms – from simple pulse trains to more complex current steering, phase-following and playback experiments. Synapse provides built-in tools for generating stimulus response curves, paired pulse inhibition, and collision studies.

Control monopolar and bipolar stimulation with the Electrical Stim Driver Gizmo

Easily program parameters such as mono or biphasic pulses, duration, current amplitude, interstimulus interval, number of pulses per trigger, and the stimulating electrode in the Gizmo.

Synapse also has a series of tools to control repeated stimulation trains and pulse bursts.

Electrical Stim Driver Gizmo

A closed-loop electrical stimulation system

TDT’s electrical stimulation system is designed for closed-loop control. The Subject Interface can perform both stimulation and recording from one device, and the RZ processor can acquire neural signals and generate stimulation trains simultaneously.

The RZ processor’s real-time operating system lets users process incoming signals and generate triggers from features such as spiking activity or power in a frequency band. The processing of the data and subsequent triggering of the stimulator all happen within a few 100 µs for real-time response.

The Synapse software is a single interface for controlling each step in the closed-loop chain. No more struggling with multiple computers, software programs, and hardware devices.

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